Mosses are primitive plants that come in many forms and grow in a variety of habitats. These plants produce spores, not seeds and the spores are so light that they are carried into the atmosphere and around the world. The haircap moss grows on nearly every continent on earth. Up close, it looks like a miniature forest. Although it grows year-round, the winter is a good time to easily find this evergreen plant in a leafless landscape.
As I have indicated in the last few posts, winter woodlands are at first look, devoid of color. Yet if you take the time to look closely, you can find colorful treasures dangling from shrubs, and growing on the forest floor.
One bit of light green that grows amongst mosses on logs and exposed nutrient poor soils is a lichen called pyxie cup lichen. This ¾” tall lichen looks similar to a chalice in King Arthur’s Court. Like a wine glass, there is a cup on top of a stem. It often grows alongside other lichens including the British soldier lichen.
Although you may notice it more during the winter, it grows throughout the year, but is often overlooked when the plants around it are leafed out. Various species of this plant can be found around the world.
I love finding a bit of color in the drab winter landscape. The eye-catching British soldier lichen pops out in the winter woodlands. It grows on fallen decaying logs and tree stumps.
Lichens are two organisms that live together for the benefit of each other. Microscopically, you would see a fungus with algae growing on it. The fungus provides minerals and a place for alga to grow and alga provides a source of sugar for the fungus. The specific lichen depends on which two combinations of fungis and alga live together.
Not only is the British soldier lichen green, it has red caps which are fruiting bodies that produce spores that break off and grow new lichens. It gets its name from the red hats the British soldiers wore during the American Revolutionary War.
You are likely to come across them in eastern U.S. woodlands from Maine to Florida and in several pockets in the western U.S.
The naked winter forest in North America provides an opportunity to find cocoons of overwintering moth larvae, dried wasp galls and fungi that are often overlooked by the average hiker. I love spending the winter in the woodlands to find these organisms.
During a recent walk in the Maryland woods, I came across a fungus growing from a decayed hardwood stump. Nearby the same fungus grew out the side of a dead oak tree. Though it was a dull gray color, closer examination exposed its intricate beauty. It was the turkey tail mushroom, one of the most common fungus in North America.
Although it is not poisonous, it is woody and unpalatable. Dried and pulverized, it has been brewed for medicinal teas to boost the immune system in ancient China. It is still used today to treat the common cold, cancer and aids in digestion.
Walk in any winter forest in North America and you are bound to see this fungus and yes, it resembles a turkey’s tail.
Walking in a winter wetland forest, in the eastern U.S. my eyes are drawn to green leafless vines growing along the edge of the trail. Numerous spiky thorns protrude from the green stems and small clusters of bluish-black berries dangle in the light breeze. It is the nasty catbriar.
Its thorns remind me of a foray into a wetland area to look for wild orchids one summer’s day. The entrance to the area was covered by a tanglement of catbriar vines that were intertwined so densely that it was impenetrable to everything except small birds. I tried to walk around it, but my shirt became snagged on one of the thorny vines. As I pulled away it tore holes in the garment. Then I accidently stepped on another prickly vine that grabbed my pants. When I pried myself from that vine, it reached out and scratched my arm.
Some plants protect themselves with foul odors, others are distasteful, but catbriar’s thorns will keep away any creature that wants to eat it. Even though I find this plant to be worthless to me, it is important to the environment. Its berries are food for wintering birds and the entanglements of its vines provide cover for small birds and protected places for birds to nest.
My mind returns to now and to avoid coming into contact with this scratchy plant I stay on the opposite side or the trail when suddenly something rubs against my pant legs. It is more briar. Ugh!!!
A plant that brings color to the winter fields and interdunal swales is the eastern red cedar. It is not a true cedar; it is a juniper.
This evergreen tree takes on many forms depending on where it grows. Along the beach front, just behind the primary dune, eastern red cedars grow more prostate. Sea breezes that blow over the top of the dunes prevent the tree from getting too tall. Cedars will take on the form of a large candle inland where they thrive in fields far from the seashore.
Eastern red cedar is a pioneer plant. It is one of the first shrubs to colonize fields created by abandoned farmlands, fires and human disturbance of forests. It paves the way for other trees and shrubs to grow.
Cedar waxwings and other berry loving birds eat the fruit of the cedar (that is how the waxwing got its name). The berries are blue-green to black and full of nutrition for wildlife, but some parts of this tree can be poisonous to people.
Look for this plant in abandoned fields and coastal areas in the eastern U.S. If it is winter time, look closely for birds. Not only do birds eat the berries, but they find shelter in the evergreens too.
Although the woodlands look bleak in the winter, one tree provides a bit of greenery and shelter in pine barren woods in the northeast and mid-Atlantic states. Pitch pine is an evergreen tree with stiff pine needles bundled in sets of threes and short round pine cones. Its thick corky-like bark protects it from wildfires.
These trees are a welcome sight for birds and wildlife. The pine provides shelter from winter storms and its cones have tiny seeds that are eaten by chickadees, crossbills. and squirrels Deer often bed down under pitch pine groves.
There are a couple of major threats to pitch pines. One is the suppression of fire. Pitch pine depends on a fire regime to burn back competing oak trees and open clearings that enable seedlings to grow. A new threat is the southern pine beetle that has spread its range northward, probably enabled by climate change. This bark beetle breeds in the inner bark of the tree where it introduces a fungus that contributes to the decimation of the pine tree.
Will there be pitch pine greenery in winter landscapes in the future? Only if people take measures through prescribed burns and finding a way to control invasive insects and plants will that happen.